后殖民伦敦的生存政治与诗学: 论古雷希的《郊野

【资料形态】硕博文库·中国***

【文献属性】[***]国立***师范大学英语研究所,1999年度,硕士学位论文

【文章标题】后殖民伦敦的生存政治与诗学: 论古雷希的《郊野佛陀》与《黑色唱片》

【英文标题】The Politics and Poetics of Survival in Postcolonial London: Reading Hanif Kureishi's The Buddha of Suburbia and The Black Album

【文章作者】陈耀宗

【指导教师】庄坤良

【文章页数】116页

【中文关键词】后殖民|伦敦|身分认同政治|古雷希|郊野佛陀|黑色唱片|生存|黑人文化政治

【英文关键词】Postcolonial;London;Identity Politics;Hanif Kureishi;The Buddha of Suburbia;The Black Album;Survival;Black Cultural Politics

【中文摘要】本论文视哈尼夫古雷希的首二部长篇小说《郊野佛陀》和《黑色唱片》为后殖民文本,认为它们再现了黑人/亚裔英国人挣扎求存于后殖民伦敦的政治与诗学。古雷希批判了白人对黑人/亚裔英国人的压迫与内部殖民,并再现了黑人/亚裔英国人内部在七、八零年代对本身的文化政治的反省与批判。他的立场面对来自两方面的压力:一方面是白人掌控的英国国族论述,另一方面则是黑人/亚裔族群的保守势力。不过,其强大的批判火力终究足以松动这两股势力,进而重新定义英国属性和黑人属性。

论文第一章尝试勾勒出二十世纪(尤其是五零年代以后)英国黑人/亚裔移民的社会与历史,以便更能深入了解古雷希小说的现实背景。我认为殖民时期的许多宰制手段仍旧被英国当权者用来压迫黑人/亚裔族群,而后殖民时期的伦敦则成了一个新的帝国。在此脉络之下,本论文所谓的“后殖民”指涉的不只是殖民统治结束之后的时空,同时亦指涉了继续反抗殖民和第二次去殖民的必要性。此外,本章亦尝试为古雷希定位,视他为土生土长于英国并认同自己是英国人的新一代黑人/亚裔英国作家。

第二章讨论《郊野佛陀》再现的第一代移民及其后代在英国社会所面对的种族与阶级问题,阐述了主角卡林阿米尔如何认识并接受其多重身份。我认为,在黑人/亚裔英国人的身份认同问题上,对主体身份的创造性翻译是最可行的解决之道。身份认同的创造性翻译因而是后殖民伦敦的生存政治与诗学。

第三章将《黑色唱片》置于一九八九年爆发的拉什迪《魔鬼诗篇》事件的脉络里,阐述了古雷希与拉什迪、《黑色唱片》与《魔鬼诗篇》的关系,以及该事件所引发的身份认同问题。古雷希的小说强力批判了黑人/亚裔族群中***基本教义派尝试打造纯粹***身份的企图,认为这是不可能的任务。相对于狭隘的基本教义,文学具有深广的包容性,足以涵盖现实里复杂、不确定的因素,更能阐释并消解后殖民多重身份的焦虑。透过对基本教义派的批判与对文学的阐扬,古雷希表达了他对拉什迪的支持与敬意。

在结论部份,我讨论了《郊野佛陀》和《黑色唱片》对英国国族论述与黑人/亚裔文化论述的介入。古雷希的小说是七、八零年代以来英国黑人/亚裔族群从单一认同转变到多元认同的一部份,它们同时重新定义了英国属性与黑人/亚裔属性。

【英文摘要】This thesis reads Kureishi’s The Buddha of Suburbia and The Black Album in the context of postcolonial literature and sees them as a representation of the politics and poetics of survival in postcolonial London. Kureishi struggles against any kind of domination on two fronts: the first one is the white-dominated British national discourse, and the second one is the black cultural discourse. His double-edged interventions in these related discourses in effect have redefined the so-called Englishness as well as Blackness.

The introductory chapter illustrates the social and historical background of Kureishi’s fiction. It is necessary to understand the history of black immigration in Britain after the dismantling of British Empire in order to capture the significance of Kureishi’s novels. I argue that colonial practices have been re-imposed upon black peoples in Britain, and London is a new empire within Britain (to appropriate Salman Rushdie’s notion). In this conception, the postcolonial refers to the time after the end of formal colonialism on the one hand, and the need for a second decolonization of the imperialist residues in the British society on the other. I also try to position Hanif Kureishi in the English literary field, regarding him as representing the new generation of black writers who were born and bred in Britain and who identify themselves as British as well as black.

The second chapter, which discusses The Buddha of Suburbia, examines the race and class issues the first and second generations of the Asian immigrants face with and their attitudes toward these issues, and how the protagonist Karim Amir comes to recognize his multiple identity. My argument is that, it is in creative translation that a black Briton with Pakistani roots can really live through the racial and class hostilities. Creative translation, therefore, is a politics and poetics of survival in postcolonial London.

Chapter 3 reads The Black Album in the context of the Rushdie Affair exploded in 1989. Kureishi’s novel sharply critiques the Muslim fundamentalists’ project to forge a pure Islamic identity. Instead of submitting to the repressive dogmas of fundamentalism, Kureishi celebrates literature as a path to live through the complexity and uncertainty of lived reality. In this way, he has expressed his strong solidarity with Salman Rushdie. It is only in embracing uncertainties that a postcolonial subject can really come to terms with the postcolonial multiple identity.

My conclusion is that, with The Buddha of Suburbia and The Black Album, Kureishi has intervened into the British national discourse and the black British cultural discourse at the same time. Kureishi’s fiction is a part of the cultural products that has shifted the black British cultural politics from what Stuart Hall has called Identity Politics One, which constructs the black as a singular category, to a new phase which celebrates “new ethnicities, multiple identities.” Kureishi also contests against the notion of Englishness, arguing that the black is also a part of the British. Therefore, as a whole, Kureishi’s fiction has redefined Blackness and Englishness.

【文章目次】

Acknowledgements xi

1 Introduction: Postcolonial London

Colonial Imprints in Imperial London

The Empire Strikes Back

Postcolonial London: The New Empire within Britain

What Is the Postcolonial London

Positioning Hanif Kureishi

2 "I am an Englishman born and bred, almost":Politics and

Poetics of Survival in The Buddha of Suburbia

Welcome to the Jungle

Welcome to the Zoo

Absolutism, Transcendentalism, Radicalism, Nihilism,

or…

The Stairwell of Social Mobility

Creative Translation: The Politics and Poetics ofSurvival

3“All limitations are poisons”: Cultural Politics in The Black Album

The Explosion of the Fatwa

The Absent Father

The Culturalist Aubergine

Ode to Literature, Song of Comradeship

Embracing Uncertainties

4 Conclusion: Redefinition of Blackness and Englishness

The Black as a Collectivity

New Ethnicities, Multiple Identities

Against Englishness

Hybridizing Blackness and Englishness

A New Way of Being British

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